Commit 72687f22 authored by zwelch's avatar zwelch
Browse files

David Brownell <>:

Rework the "Simple Configuration Files" chapter so it's more
of a quick-start "how to set up your project" tutorial:

 - Say how to hook up the JTAG adapter.  This will help new
   users, and in any case is worth spelling out somewhere.

 - Streamline the previous rather haphazard presentation,
   filling in some missing holes along the way:

     * Suggest "project directory" structure
     * Introduce new term, "user config" file (openocd.cfg)
     * Talk about more options for openocd.cfg contents
     * ... and about creating new config files
     * Add new topic, project-specific utilities (+examples)

 - Remove too-short, yet duplicative, chapter 19

Nudge packagers a bit more strongly to send patches (including
config files) upstream.

git-svn-id: svn:// b42882b7-edfa-0310-969c-e2dbd0fdcd60
parent b3edde7b
......@@ -63,7 +63,7 @@ Free Documentation License''.
* Building OpenOCD:: Building OpenOCD From SVN
* JTAG Hardware Dongles:: JTAG Hardware Dongles
* Running:: Running OpenOCD
* Simple Configuration Files:: Simple Configuration Files
* OpenOCD Project Setup:: OpenOCD Project Setup
* Config File Guidelines:: Config File Guidelines
* About JIM-Tcl:: About JIM-Tcl
* Daemon Configuration:: Daemon Configuration
......@@ -76,7 +76,6 @@ Free Documentation License''.
* General Commands:: General Commands
* Architecture and Core Commands:: Architecture and Core Commands
* JTAG Commands:: JTAG Commands
* Sample Scripts:: Sample Target Scripts
* GDB and OpenOCD:: Using GDB and OpenOCD
* Tcl Scripting API:: Tcl Scripting API
......@@ -239,6 +238,7 @@ That said, the OpenOCD developers would also like you to follow a few
@item @b{Send patches, including config files, upstream.}
@item @b{Always build with printer ports enabled.}
@item @b{Try to use LIBFTDI + LIBUSB where possible. You cover more bases.}
@end enumerate
......@@ -718,28 +718,114 @@ establish a connection with the target. In general, it is possible for
the JTAG controller to be unresponsive until the target is set up
correctly via e.g. GDB monitor commands in a GDB init script.
@node Simple Configuration Files
@chapter Simple Configuration Files
@cindex configuration
@node OpenOCD Project Setup
@chapter OpenOCD Project Setup
@section Outline
There are 4 basic ways of ``configurating'' OpenOCD to run, they are:
To use OpenOCD with your development projects, you need to do more than
just connecting the JTAG adapter hardware (dongle) to your development board
and then starting the OpenOCD server.
You also need to configure that server so that it knows
about that adapter and board, and helps your work.
@section Hooking up the JTAG Adapter
Today's most common case is a dongle with a JTAG cable on one side
(such as a ribbon cable with a 10-pin or 20-pin IDC connector)
and a USB cable on the other.
Instead of USB, some cables use Ethernet;
older ones may use a PC parallel port, or even a serial port.
@item A small openocd.cfg file which ``sources'' other configuration files
@item A monolithic openocd.cfg file
@item Many -f filename options on the command line
@item Your Mixed Solution
@item @emph{Start with power to your target board turned off},
and nothing connected to your JTAG adapter.
If you're particularly paranoid, unplug power to the board.
It's important to have the ground signal properly set up,
unless you are using a JTAG adapter which provides
galvanic isolation between the target board and the
debugging host.
@item @emph{Be sure it's the right kind of JTAG connector.}
If your dongle has a 20-pin ARM connector, you need some kind
of adapter (or octopus, see below) to hook it up to
boards using 14-pin or 10-pin connectors ... or to 20-pin
connectors which don't use ARM's pinout.
In the same vein, make sure the voltage levels are compatible.
Not all JTAG adapters have the level shifters needed to work
with 1.2 Volt boards.
@item @emph{Be certain the cable is properly oriented} or you might
damage your board. In most cases there are only two possible
ways to connect the cable.
Connect the JTAG cable from your adapter to the board.
Be sure it's firmly connected.
In the best case, the connector is keyed to physically
prevent you from inserting it wrong.
This is most often done using a slot on the board's male connector
housing, which must match a key on the JTAG cable's female connector.
If there's no housing, then you must look carefully and
make sure pin 1 on the cable hooks up to pin 1 on the board.
Ribbon cables are frequently all grey except for a wire on one
edge, which is red. The red wire is pin 1.
Sometimes dongles provide cables where one end is an ``octopus'' of
color coded single-wire connectors, instead of a connector block.
These are great when converting from one JTAG pinout to another,
but are tedious to set up.
Use these with connector pinout diagrams to help you match up the
adapter signals to the right board pins.
@item @emph{Connect the adapter's other end} once the JTAG cable is connected.
A USB, parallel, or serial port connector will go to the host which
you are using to run OpenOCD.
For Ethernet, consult the documentation and your network administrator.
For USB based JTAG adapters you have an easy sanity check at this point:
does the host operating system see the JTAG adapter?
@item @emph{Connect the adapter's power supply, if needed.}
This step is primarily for non-USB adapters,
but sometimes USB adapters need extra power.
@item @emph{Power up the target board.}
Unless you just let the magic smoke escape,
you're now ready to set up the OpenOCD server
so you can use JTAG to work with that board.
@end enumerate
@section Small configuration file method
Talk with the OpenOCD server using
telnet (@code{telnet localhost 4444} on many systems) or GDB.
@xref{GDB and OpenOCD}.
@section Project Directory
This is the preferred method. It is simple and works well for many
people. The developers of OpenOCD would encourage you to use this
method. If you create a new configuration please email new
configurations to the development list.
There are many ways you can configure OpenOCD and start it up.
Here is an example of an openocd.cfg file for an ATMEL at91sam7x256
A simple way to organize them all involves keeping a
single directory for your work with a given board.
When you start OpenOCD from that directory,
it searches there first for configuration files
and for code you upload to the target board.
It is also be the natural place to write files,
such as log files and data you download from the board.
@section Configuration Basics
There are two basic ways of configuring OpenOCD, and
a variety of ways you can mix them.
Think of the difference as just being how you start the server:
@item Many @option{-f file} or @option{-c command} options on the command line
@item No options, but a @dfn{user config file}
in the current directory named @file{openocd.cfg}
@end itemize
Here is an example @file{openocd.cfg} file for a setup
using a Signalyzer FT2232-based JTAG adapter to talk to
a board with an Atmel AT91SAM7X256 microcontroller:
source [find interface/signalyzer.cfg]
......@@ -751,66 +837,172 @@ gdb_flash_program enable
source [find target/sam7x256.cfg]
@end example
There are many example configuration scripts you can work with. You
should look in the directory: @t{$(INSTALLDIR)/lib/openocd}. You
should find:
Here is the command line equivalent of that configuration:
@item @b{board} - eval board level configurations
@item @b{interface} - specific dongle configurations
@item @b{target} - the target chips
@item @b{tcl} - helper scripts
@item @b{xscale} - things specific to the xscale.
@end enumerate
openocd -f interface/signalyzer.cfg \
-c "gdb_memory_map enable" \
-c "gdb_flash_program enable" \
-f target/sam7x256.cfg
@end example
You could wrap such long command lines in shell scripts,
each supporting a different development task.
One might re-flash the board with specific firmware version.
Another might set up a particular debugging or run-time environment.
Look first in the ``boards'' area, then the ``targets'' area. Often a board
configuration is a good example to work from.
Here we will focus on the simpler solution: one user config
file, including basic configuration plus any TCL procedures
to simplify your work.
@section Many -f filename options
Some believe this is a wonderful solution, others find it painful.
@section User Config Files
@cindex config file
@cindex user config file
You can use a series of ``-f filename'' options on the command line,
OpenOCD will read each filename in sequence, for example:
A user configuration file ties together all the parts of a project
in one place.
One of the following will match your situation best:
@item Ideally almost everything comes from configuration files
provided by someone else.
For example, OpenOCD distributes a @file{scripts} directory
(probably in @file{/usr/share/openocd/scripts} on Linux);
board and tool vendors can provide these too.
The AT91SAM7X256 example above works this way.
Three main types of non-user configuration file each have their
own subdirectory in the @file{scripts} directory:
@item @b{interface} -- one for each kind of JTAG adapter/dongle
@item @b{board} -- one for each different board
@item @b{target} -- the chips which integrate CPUs and other JTAG TAPs
@end enumerate
Best case: include just two files, and they handle everything else.
The first is an interface config file.
The second is board-specific, and it sets up the JTAG TAPs and
their GDB targets (by deferring to some @file{target.cfg} file),
declares all flash memory, and leaves you nothing to do except
meet your deadline:
openocd -f file1.cfg -f file2.cfg -f file2.cfg
source [find interface/olimex-jtag-tiny.cfg]
source [find board/csb337.cfg]
@end example
You can also intermix various commands with the ``-c'' command line
Boards with a single microcontroller often won't need more
than the target config file, as in the AT91SAM7X256 example.
That's because there is no external memory (flash, DDR RAM), and
the board differences are encapsulated by application code.
@section Monolithic file
The ``Monolithic File'' dispenses with all ``source'' statements and
puts everything in one self contained (monolithic) file. This is not
@item You can often reuse some standard config files but
need to write a few new ones, probably a @file{board.cfg} file.
You will be using commands described later in this User's Guide,
and working with the guidelines in the next chapter.
Please try to ``source'' various files or use the multiple -f
For example, there may be configuration files for your JTAG adapter
and target chip, but you need a new board-specific config file
giving access to your particular flash chips.
Or you might need to write another target chip configuration file
for a new chip built around the Cortex M3 core.
@section Advice for you
Often, one uses a ``mixed approach''. Where possible, please try to
``source'' common things, and if needed cut/paste parts of the
standard distribution configuration files as needed.
@quotation Note
When you write new configuration files, please submit
them for inclusion in the next OpenOCD release.
For example, a @file{board/newboard.cfg} file will help the
next users of that board, and a @file{target/newcpu.cfg}
will help support users of any board using that chip.
@end quotation
@b{REMEMBER:} The ``important parts'' of your configuration file are:
You may may need to write some C code.
It may be as simple as a supporting a new new ft2232 or parport
based dongle; a bit more involved, like a NAND or NOR flash
controller driver; or a big piece of work like supporting
a new chip architecture.
@end itemize
@item @b{Interface} - Defines the dongle
@item @b{Taps} - Defines the JTAG Taps
@item @b{GDB Targets} - What GDB talks to
@item @b{Flash Programing} - Very Helpful
@end enumerate
Reuse the existing config files when you can.
Look first in the @file{scripts/boards} area, then @file{scripts/targets}.
You may find a board configuration that's a good example to follow.
Some key things you should look at and understand are:
When you write config files, separate the reusable parts
(things every user of that interface, chip, or board needs)
from ones specific to your environment and debugging approach.
@item The reset configuration of your debug environment as a whole
@item Is there a ``work area'' that OpenOCD can use?
@* For ARM - work areas mean up to 10x faster downloads.
@item For MMU/MPU based ARM chips (i.e.: ARM9 and later) will that work area still be available?
@item For complex targets (multiple chips) the JTAG SPEED becomes an issue.
@end enumerate
For example, a @code{gdb-attach} event handler that invokes
the @command{reset init} command will interfere with debugging
early boot code, which performs some of the same actions
that the @code{reset-init} event handler does.
Likewise, the @command{arm9tdmi vector_catch} command (or
its @command{xscale vector_catch} sibling) can be a timesaver
during some debug sessions, but don't make everyone use that either.
Keep those kinds of debugging aids in your user config file.
@section Project-Specific Utilities
A few project-specific utility
routines may well speed up your work.
Write them, and keep them in your project's user config file.
For example, if you are making a boot loader work on a
board, it's nice to be able to debug the ``after it's
loaded to RAM'' parts separately from the finicky early
code which sets up the DDR RAM controller and clocks.
A script like this one, or a more GDB-aware sibling,
may help:
proc ramboot @{ @} @{
# Reset, running the target's "reset-init" scripts
# to initialize clocks and the DDR RAM controller.
# Leave the CPU halted.
reset init
load_image u-boot.bin 0x20000000
# Start running.
resume 0x20000000
@end example
Then once that code is working you will need to make it
boot from NOR flash; a different utility would help.
Alternatively, some developers write to flash using GDB.
(You might use a similar script if you're working with a flash
based microcontroller application instead of a boot loader.)
proc newboot @{ @} @{
# Reset, leaving the CPU halted. The "reset-init" event
# proc gives faster access to the CPU and to NOR flash;
# "reset halt" would be slower.
reset init
# Write standard version of U-Boot into the first two
# sectors of NOR flash ... the standard version should
# do the same lowlevel init as "reset-init".
flash protect 0 0 1 off
flash erase_sector 0 0 1
flash write_bank 0 u-boot.bin 0x0
flash protect 0 0 1 on
# Reboot from scratch using that new boot loader.
reset run
@end example
You may need more complicated utility procedures when booting
from NAND.
That often involves an extra bootloader stage,
running from on-chip SRAM to perform DDR RAM setup so it can load
the main bootloader code (which won't fit into that SRAM).
Other helper scripts might be used to write production system images,
involving considerably more than just a three stage bootloader.
@node Config File Guidelines
......@@ -852,6 +1044,7 @@ setting a variable or two before sourcing the target file. Or adding
various commands specific to their situation.
@section Interface Config Files
@cindex config file
The user should be able to source one of these files via a command like this:
......@@ -868,6 +1061,7 @@ sole developer who created it.
Interface files should be found in @t{$(INSTALLDIR)/lib/openocd/interface}
@section Board Config Files
@cindex config file
@b{Note: BOARD directory NEW as of 28/nov/2008}
......@@ -896,6 +1090,7 @@ In summary the board files should contain (if present)
@end enumerate
@section Target Config Files
@cindex config file
The user should be able to source one of these files via a command like this:
......@@ -1113,13 +1308,6 @@ register to report that JTAG debugging is being done.
If the chip has a DCC, enable it. If the chip is an ARM9 with some
special high speed download features - enable it.
If the chip supports the @command{arm9tdmi vector_catch},
@command{xscale vector_catch}, or similar features,
consider enabling it in your user-specific configuration file.
Experience has shown the ``vector_catch'' can be
helpful for catching programming errors
like Undefined Instructions, Data Abort, and Prefetch Abort.
If present, the MMU, the MPU and the CACHE should be disabled.
Some ARM cores are equipped with trace support, which permits
......@@ -4885,33 +5073,6 @@ that supports a packet size bigger than the default packet size (512 bytes). The
are numerous TFTP servers out there (free and commercial) and you will have to do
a bit of googling to find something that fits your requirements.
@node Sample Scripts
@chapter Sample Scripts
@cindex scripts
This page shows how to use the Target Library.
The configuration script can be divided into the following sections:
@itemize @bullet
@item Daemon configuration
@item Interface
@item JTAG scan chain
@item Target configuration
@item Flash configuration
@end itemize
Detailed information about each section can be found at OpenOCD configuration.
@section AT91R40008 example
@cindex AT91R40008 example
To start OpenOCD with a target script for the AT91R40008 CPU and reset
the CPU upon startup of the OpenOCD daemon.
openocd -f interface/parport.cfg -f target/at91r40008.cfg \
-c "init" -c "reset"
@end example
@node GDB and OpenOCD
@chapter GDB and OpenOCD
@cindex GDB
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