target.c 120 KB
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/***************************************************************************
 *   Copyright (C) 2005 by Dominic Rath                                    *
 *   Dominic.Rath@gmx.de                                                   *
 *                                                                         *
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 *   Copyright (C) 2007-2009 Øyvind Harboe                                 *
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 *   oyvind.harboe@zylin.com                                               *
 *                                                                         *
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 *   Copyright (C) 2008, Duane Ellis                                       *
 *   openocd@duaneeellis.com                                               *
 *                                                                         *
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 *   Copyright (C) 2008 by Spencer Oliver                                  *
 *   spen@spen-soft.co.uk                                                  *
 *                                                                         *
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 *   Copyright (C) 2008 by Rick Altherr                                    *
 *   kc8apf@kc8apf.net>                                                    *
 *                                                                         *
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 *   This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify  *
 *   it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by  *
 *   the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or     *
 *   (at your option) any later version.                                   *
 *                                                                         *
 *   This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,       *
 *   but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of        *
 *   MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the         *
 *   GNU General Public License for more details.                          *
 *                                                                         *
 *   You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License     *
 *   along with this program; if not, write to the                         *
 *   Free Software Foundation, Inc.,                                       *
 *   59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA.             *
 ***************************************************************************/
#ifdef HAVE_CONFIG_H
#include "config.h"
#endif

#include "target.h"
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#include "target_type.h"
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#include "target_request.h"
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#include "breakpoints.h"
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#include "time_support.h"
#include "register.h"
#include "trace.h"
#include "image.h"
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#include "jtag.h"


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static int target_array2mem(Jim_Interp *interp, struct target *target, int argc, Jim_Obj *const *argv);
static int target_mem2array(Jim_Interp *interp, struct target *target, int argc, Jim_Obj *const *argv);
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/* targets */
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extern struct target_type arm7tdmi_target;
extern struct target_type arm720t_target;
extern struct target_type arm9tdmi_target;
extern struct target_type arm920t_target;
extern struct target_type arm966e_target;
extern struct target_type arm926ejs_target;
extern struct target_type fa526_target;
extern struct target_type feroceon_target;
extern struct target_type dragonite_target;
extern struct target_type xscale_target;
extern struct target_type cortexm3_target;
extern struct target_type cortexa8_target;
extern struct target_type arm11_target;
extern struct target_type mips_m4k_target;
extern struct target_type avr_target;
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extern struct target_type testee_target;
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struct target_type *target_types[] =
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{
	&arm7tdmi_target,
	&arm9tdmi_target,
	&arm920t_target,
	&arm720t_target,
	&arm966e_target,
	&arm926ejs_target,
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	&fa526_target,
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	&feroceon_target,
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	&dragonite_target,
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	&xscale_target,
	&cortexm3_target,
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	&cortexa8_target,
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	&arm11_target,
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	&mips_m4k_target,
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	&avr_target,
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	&testee_target,
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	NULL,
};

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struct target *all_targets = NULL;
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struct target_event_callback *target_event_callbacks = NULL;
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struct target_timer_callback *target_timer_callbacks = NULL;
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const Jim_Nvp nvp_assert[] = {
	{ .name = "assert", NVP_ASSERT },
	{ .name = "deassert", NVP_DEASSERT },
	{ .name = "T", NVP_ASSERT },
	{ .name = "F", NVP_DEASSERT },
	{ .name = "t", NVP_ASSERT },
	{ .name = "f", NVP_DEASSERT },
	{ .name = NULL, .value = -1 }
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};

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const Jim_Nvp nvp_error_target[] = {
	{ .value = ERROR_TARGET_INVALID, .name = "err-invalid" },
	{ .value = ERROR_TARGET_INIT_FAILED, .name = "err-init-failed" },
	{ .value = ERROR_TARGET_TIMEOUT, .name = "err-timeout" },
	{ .value = ERROR_TARGET_NOT_HALTED, .name = "err-not-halted" },
	{ .value = ERROR_TARGET_FAILURE, .name = "err-failure" },
	{ .value = ERROR_TARGET_UNALIGNED_ACCESS   , .name = "err-unaligned-access" },
	{ .value = ERROR_TARGET_DATA_ABORT , .name = "err-data-abort" },
	{ .value = ERROR_TARGET_RESOURCE_NOT_AVAILABLE , .name = "err-resource-not-available" },
	{ .value = ERROR_TARGET_TRANSLATION_FAULT  , .name = "err-translation-fault" },
	{ .value = ERROR_TARGET_NOT_RUNNING, .name = "err-not-running" },
	{ .value = ERROR_TARGET_NOT_EXAMINED, .name = "err-not-examined" },
	{ .value = -1, .name = NULL }
};

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const char *target_strerror_safe(int err)
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{
	const Jim_Nvp *n;

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	n = Jim_Nvp_value2name_simple(nvp_error_target, err);
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	if (n->name == NULL) {
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		return "unknown";
	} else {
		return n->name;
	}
}

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static const Jim_Nvp nvp_target_event[] = {
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	{ .value = TARGET_EVENT_OLD_gdb_program_config , .name = "old-gdb_program_config" },
	{ .value = TARGET_EVENT_OLD_pre_resume         , .name = "old-pre_resume" },
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	{ .value = TARGET_EVENT_GDB_HALT, .name = "gdb-halt" },
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	{ .value = TARGET_EVENT_HALTED, .name = "halted" },
	{ .value = TARGET_EVENT_RESUMED, .name = "resumed" },
	{ .value = TARGET_EVENT_RESUME_START, .name = "resume-start" },
	{ .value = TARGET_EVENT_RESUME_END, .name = "resume-end" },

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	{ .name = "gdb-start", .value = TARGET_EVENT_GDB_START },
	{ .name = "gdb-end", .value = TARGET_EVENT_GDB_END },

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	/* historical name */
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	{ .value = TARGET_EVENT_RESET_START, .name = "reset-start" },
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	{ .value = TARGET_EVENT_RESET_ASSERT_PRE,    .name = "reset-assert-pre" },
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	{ .value = TARGET_EVENT_RESET_ASSERT,        .name = "reset-assert" },
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	{ .value = TARGET_EVENT_RESET_ASSERT_POST,   .name = "reset-assert-post" },
	{ .value = TARGET_EVENT_RESET_DEASSERT_PRE,  .name = "reset-deassert-pre" },
	{ .value = TARGET_EVENT_RESET_DEASSERT_POST, .name = "reset-deassert-post" },
	{ .value = TARGET_EVENT_RESET_HALT_PRE,      .name = "reset-halt-pre" },
	{ .value = TARGET_EVENT_RESET_HALT_POST,     .name = "reset-halt-post" },
	{ .value = TARGET_EVENT_RESET_WAIT_PRE,      .name = "reset-wait-pre" },
	{ .value = TARGET_EVENT_RESET_WAIT_POST,     .name = "reset-wait-post" },
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	{ .value = TARGET_EVENT_RESET_INIT,          .name = "reset-init" },
	{ .value = TARGET_EVENT_RESET_END,           .name = "reset-end" },
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	{ .value = TARGET_EVENT_EXAMINE_START, .name = "examine-start" },
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	{ .value = TARGET_EVENT_EXAMINE_END, .name = "examine-end" },
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	{ .value = TARGET_EVENT_DEBUG_HALTED, .name = "debug-halted" },
	{ .value = TARGET_EVENT_DEBUG_RESUMED, .name = "debug-resumed" },

	{ .value = TARGET_EVENT_GDB_ATTACH, .name = "gdb-attach" },
	{ .value = TARGET_EVENT_GDB_DETACH, .name = "gdb-detach" },

	{ .value = TARGET_EVENT_GDB_FLASH_WRITE_START, .name = "gdb-flash-write-start" },
	{ .value = TARGET_EVENT_GDB_FLASH_WRITE_END  , .name = "gdb-flash-write-end"   },

	{ .value = TARGET_EVENT_GDB_FLASH_ERASE_START, .name = "gdb-flash-erase-start" },
	{ .value = TARGET_EVENT_GDB_FLASH_ERASE_END  , .name = "gdb-flash-erase-end" },

	{ .value = TARGET_EVENT_RESUME_START, .name = "resume-start" },
	{ .value = TARGET_EVENT_RESUMED     , .name = "resume-ok" },
	{ .value = TARGET_EVENT_RESUME_END  , .name = "resume-end" },

	{ .name = NULL, .value = -1 }
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};

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const Jim_Nvp nvp_target_state[] = {
	{ .name = "unknown", .value = TARGET_UNKNOWN },
	{ .name = "running", .value = TARGET_RUNNING },
	{ .name = "halted",  .value = TARGET_HALTED },
	{ .name = "reset",   .value = TARGET_RESET },
	{ .name = "debug-running", .value = TARGET_DEBUG_RUNNING },
	{ .name = NULL, .value = -1 },
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};

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const Jim_Nvp nvp_target_debug_reason [] = {
	{ .name = "debug-request"            , .value = DBG_REASON_DBGRQ },
	{ .name = "breakpoint"               , .value = DBG_REASON_BREAKPOINT },
	{ .name = "watchpoint"               , .value = DBG_REASON_WATCHPOINT },
	{ .name = "watchpoint-and-breakpoint", .value = DBG_REASON_WPTANDBKPT },
	{ .name = "single-step"              , .value = DBG_REASON_SINGLESTEP },
	{ .name = "target-not-halted"        , .value = DBG_REASON_NOTHALTED  },
	{ .name = "undefined"                , .value = DBG_REASON_UNDEFINED },
	{ .name = NULL, .value = -1 },
};

const Jim_Nvp nvp_target_endian[] = {
	{ .name = "big",    .value = TARGET_BIG_ENDIAN },
	{ .name = "little", .value = TARGET_LITTLE_ENDIAN },
	{ .name = "be",     .value = TARGET_BIG_ENDIAN },
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	{ .name = "le",     .value = TARGET_LITTLE_ENDIAN },
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	{ .name = NULL,     .value = -1 },
};

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const Jim_Nvp nvp_reset_modes[] = {
	{ .name = "unknown", .value = RESET_UNKNOWN },
	{ .name = "run"    , .value = RESET_RUN },
	{ .name = "halt"   , .value = RESET_HALT },
	{ .name = "init"   , .value = RESET_INIT },
	{ .name = NULL     , .value = -1 },
};

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const char *
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target_state_name( struct target *t )
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{
	const char *cp;
	cp = Jim_Nvp_value2name_simple(nvp_target_state, t->state)->name;
	if( !cp ){
		LOG_ERROR("Invalid target state: %d", (int)(t->state));
		cp = "(*BUG*unknown*BUG*)";
	}
	return cp;
}

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/* determine the number of the new target */
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static int new_target_number(void)
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{
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	struct target *t;
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	int x;

	/* number is 0 based */
	x = -1;
	t = all_targets;
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	while (t) {
		if (x < t->target_number) {
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			x = t->target_number;
		}
		t = t->next;
	}
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	return x + 1;
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}

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/* read a uint32_t from a buffer in target memory endianness */
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uint32_t target_buffer_get_u32(struct target *target, const uint8_t *buffer)
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{
	if (target->endianness == TARGET_LITTLE_ENDIAN)
		return le_to_h_u32(buffer);
	else
		return be_to_h_u32(buffer);
}

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/* read a uint16_t from a buffer in target memory endianness */
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uint16_t target_buffer_get_u16(struct target *target, const uint8_t *buffer)
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{
	if (target->endianness == TARGET_LITTLE_ENDIAN)
		return le_to_h_u16(buffer);
	else
		return be_to_h_u16(buffer);
}

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/* read a uint8_t from a buffer in target memory endianness */
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uint8_t target_buffer_get_u8(struct target *target, const uint8_t *buffer)
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{
	return *buffer & 0x0ff;
}

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/* write a uint32_t to a buffer in target memory endianness */
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void target_buffer_set_u32(struct target *target, uint8_t *buffer, uint32_t value)
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{
	if (target->endianness == TARGET_LITTLE_ENDIAN)
		h_u32_to_le(buffer, value);
	else
		h_u32_to_be(buffer, value);
}

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/* write a uint16_t to a buffer in target memory endianness */
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void target_buffer_set_u16(struct target *target, uint8_t *buffer, uint16_t value)
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{
	if (target->endianness == TARGET_LITTLE_ENDIAN)
		h_u16_to_le(buffer, value);
	else
		h_u16_to_be(buffer, value);
}

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/* write a uint8_t to a buffer in target memory endianness */
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void target_buffer_set_u8(struct target *target, uint8_t *buffer, uint8_t value)
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{
	*buffer = value;
}

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/* return a pointer to a configured target; id is name or number */
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struct target *get_target(const char *id)
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{
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	struct target *target;
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	/* try as tcltarget name */
	for (target = all_targets; target; target = target->next) {
		if (target->cmd_name == NULL)
			continue;
		if (strcmp(id, target->cmd_name) == 0)
			return target;
	}

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	/* It's OK to remove this fallback sometime after August 2010 or so */

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	/* no match, try as number */
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	unsigned num;
	if (parse_uint(id, &num) != ERROR_OK)
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		return NULL;

	for (target = all_targets; target; target = target->next) {
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		if (target->target_number == (int)num) {
			LOG_WARNING("use '%s' as target identifier, not '%u'",
					target->cmd_name, num);
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			return target;
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		}
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	}

	return NULL;
}

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/* returns a pointer to the n-th configured target */
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static struct target *get_target_by_num(int num)
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{
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	struct target *target = all_targets;
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	while (target) {
		if (target->target_number == num) {
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			return target;
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		}
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		target = target->next;
	}

	return NULL;
}

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struct target* get_current_target(struct command_context *cmd_ctx)
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{
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	struct target *target = get_target_by_num(cmd_ctx->current_target);
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	if (target == NULL)
	{
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		LOG_ERROR("BUG: current_target out of bounds");
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		exit(-1);
	}

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	return target;
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}

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int target_poll(struct target *target)
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{
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	int retval;

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	/* We can't poll until after examine */
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	if (!target_was_examined(target))
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	{
		/* Fail silently lest we pollute the log */
		return ERROR_FAIL;
	}
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	retval = target->type->poll(target);
	if (retval != ERROR_OK)
		return retval;

	if (target->halt_issued)
	{
		if (target->state == TARGET_HALTED)
		{
			target->halt_issued = false;
		} else
		{
			long long t = timeval_ms() - target->halt_issued_time;
			if (t>1000)
			{
				target->halt_issued = false;
				LOG_INFO("Halt timed out, wake up GDB.");
				target_call_event_callbacks(target, TARGET_EVENT_GDB_HALT);
			}
		}
	}

	return ERROR_OK;
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}

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int target_halt(struct target *target)
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{
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	int retval;
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	/* We can't poll until after examine */
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	if (!target_was_examined(target))
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	{
		LOG_ERROR("Target not examined yet");
		return ERROR_FAIL;
	}
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	retval = target->type->halt(target);
	if (retval != ERROR_OK)
		return retval;

	target->halt_issued = true;
	target->halt_issued_time = timeval_ms();

	return ERROR_OK;
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}

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int target_resume(struct target *target, int current, uint32_t address, int handle_breakpoints, int debug_execution)
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{
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	int retval;
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	/* We can't poll until after examine */
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	if (!target_was_examined(target))
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	{
		LOG_ERROR("Target not examined yet");
		return ERROR_FAIL;
	}
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	/* note that resume *must* be asynchronous. The CPU can halt before we poll. The CPU can
	 * even halt at the current PC as a result of a software breakpoint being inserted by (a bug?)
	 * the application.
	 */
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	if ((retval = target->type->resume(target, current, address, handle_breakpoints, debug_execution)) != ERROR_OK)
		return retval;
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	return retval;
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}

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int target_process_reset(struct command_context *cmd_ctx, enum target_reset_mode reset_mode)
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{
	char buf[100];
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	int retval;
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	Jim_Nvp *n;
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	n = Jim_Nvp_value2name_simple(nvp_reset_modes, reset_mode);
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	if (n->name == NULL) {
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		LOG_ERROR("invalid reset mode");
		return ERROR_FAIL;
	}

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	/* disable polling during reset to make reset event scripts
	 * more predictable, i.e. dr/irscan & pathmove in events will
	 * not have JTAG operations injected into the middle of a sequence.
	 */
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	bool save_poll = jtag_poll_get_enabled();

	jtag_poll_set_enabled(false);
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	sprintf(buf, "ocd_process_reset %s", n->name);
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	retval = Jim_Eval(cmd_ctx->interp, buf);
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	jtag_poll_set_enabled(save_poll);
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	if (retval != JIM_OK) {
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		Jim_PrintErrorMessage(cmd_ctx->interp);
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		return ERROR_FAIL;
	}
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	/* We want any events to be processed before the prompt */
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	retval = target_call_timer_callbacks_now();
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	return retval;
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}

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static int identity_virt2phys(struct target *target,
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		uint32_t virtual, uint32_t *physical)
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{
	*physical = virtual;
	return ERROR_OK;
}

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static int no_mmu(struct target *target, int *enabled)
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{
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	*enabled = 0;
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	return ERROR_OK;
}

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static int default_examine(struct target *target)
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{
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	target_set_examined(target);
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	return ERROR_OK;
}

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int target_examine_one(struct target *target)
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{
	return target->type->examine(target);
}

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static int jtag_enable_callback(enum jtag_event event, void *priv)
{
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	struct target *target = priv;
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	if (event != JTAG_TAP_EVENT_ENABLE || !target->tap->enabled)
		return ERROR_OK;

	jtag_unregister_event_callback(jtag_enable_callback, target);
	return target_examine_one(target);
}


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/* Targets that correctly implement init + examine, i.e.
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 * no communication with target during init:
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 *
 * XScale
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 */
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int target_examine(void)
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{
	int retval = ERROR_OK;
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	struct target *target;
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	for (target = all_targets; target; target = target->next)
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	{
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		/* defer examination, but don't skip it */
		if (!target->tap->enabled) {
			jtag_register_event_callback(jtag_enable_callback,
					target);
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			continue;
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		}
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		if ((retval = target_examine_one(target)) != ERROR_OK)
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			return retval;
	}
	return retval;
}
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const char *target_type_name(struct target *target)
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{
	return target->type->name;
}
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static int target_write_memory_imp(struct target *target, uint32_t address, uint32_t size, uint32_t count, uint8_t *buffer)
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{
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	if (!target_was_examined(target))
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	{
		LOG_ERROR("Target not examined yet");
		return ERROR_FAIL;
	}
	return target->type->write_memory_imp(target, address, size, count, buffer);
}

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static int target_read_memory_imp(struct target *target, uint32_t address, uint32_t size, uint32_t count, uint8_t *buffer)
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{
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	if (!target_was_examined(target))
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	{
		LOG_ERROR("Target not examined yet");
		return ERROR_FAIL;
	}
	return target->type->read_memory_imp(target, address, size, count, buffer);
}

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static int target_soft_reset_halt_imp(struct target *target)
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{
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	if (!target_was_examined(target))
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	{
		LOG_ERROR("Target not examined yet");
		return ERROR_FAIL;
	}
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	if (!target->type->soft_reset_halt_imp) {
		LOG_ERROR("Target %s does not support soft_reset_halt",
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				target_name(target));
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		return ERROR_FAIL;
	}
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	return target->type->soft_reset_halt_imp(target);
}

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static int target_run_algorithm_imp(struct target *target, int num_mem_params, struct mem_param *mem_params, int num_reg_params, struct reg_param *reg_param, uint32_t entry_point, uint32_t exit_point, int timeout_ms, void *arch_info)
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{
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	if (!target_was_examined(target))
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	{
		LOG_ERROR("Target not examined yet");
		return ERROR_FAIL;
	}
	return target->type->run_algorithm_imp(target, num_mem_params, mem_params, num_reg_params, reg_param, entry_point, exit_point, timeout_ms, arch_info);
}
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int target_read_memory(struct target *target,
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		uint32_t address, uint32_t size, uint32_t count, uint8_t *buffer)
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{
	return target->type->read_memory(target, address, size, count, buffer);
}

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int target_read_phys_memory(struct target *target,
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		uint32_t address, uint32_t size, uint32_t count, uint8_t *buffer)
{
	return target->type->read_phys_memory(target, address, size, count, buffer);
}

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int target_write_memory(struct target *target,
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		uint32_t address, uint32_t size, uint32_t count, uint8_t *buffer)
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{
	return target->type->write_memory(target, address, size, count, buffer);
}
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int target_write_phys_memory(struct target *target,
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		uint32_t address, uint32_t size, uint32_t count, uint8_t *buffer)
{
	return target->type->write_phys_memory(target, address, size, count, buffer);
}

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int target_bulk_write_memory(struct target *target,
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		uint32_t address, uint32_t count, uint8_t *buffer)
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{
	return target->type->bulk_write_memory(target, address, count, buffer);
}

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int target_add_breakpoint(struct target *target,
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		struct breakpoint *breakpoint)
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{
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	if (target->state != TARGET_HALTED) {
		LOG_WARNING("target %s is not halted", target->cmd_name);
		return ERROR_TARGET_NOT_HALTED;
	}
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	return target->type->add_breakpoint(target, breakpoint);
}
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int target_remove_breakpoint(struct target *target,
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		struct breakpoint *breakpoint)
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{
	return target->type->remove_breakpoint(target, breakpoint);
}

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int target_add_watchpoint(struct target *target,
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		struct watchpoint *watchpoint)
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{
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	if (target->state != TARGET_HALTED) {
		LOG_WARNING("target %s is not halted", target->cmd_name);
		return ERROR_TARGET_NOT_HALTED;
	}
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	return target->type->add_watchpoint(target, watchpoint);
}
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int target_remove_watchpoint(struct target *target,
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		struct watchpoint *watchpoint)
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{
	return target->type->remove_watchpoint(target, watchpoint);
}
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int target_get_gdb_reg_list(struct target *target,
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		struct reg **reg_list[], int *reg_list_size)
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{
	return target->type->get_gdb_reg_list(target, reg_list, reg_list_size);
}
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int target_step(struct target *target,
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		int current, uint32_t address, int handle_breakpoints)
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{
	return target->type->step(target, current, address, handle_breakpoints);
}

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int target_run_algorithm(struct target *target,
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		int num_mem_params, struct mem_param *mem_params,
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		int num_reg_params, struct reg_param *reg_param,
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		uint32_t entry_point, uint32_t exit_point,
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		int timeout_ms, void *arch_info)
{
	return target->type->run_algorithm(target,
			num_mem_params, mem_params, num_reg_params, reg_param,
			entry_point, exit_point, timeout_ms, arch_info);
}

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/**
 * Reset the @c examined flag for the given target.
 * Pure paranoia -- targets are zeroed on allocation.
 */
static void target_reset_examined(struct target *target)
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{
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	target->examined = false;
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}

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static int
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err_read_phys_memory(struct target *target, uint32_t address,
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		uint32_t size, uint32_t count, uint8_t *buffer)
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{
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	LOG_ERROR("Not implemented: %s", __func__);
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	return ERROR_FAIL;
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}

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static int
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err_write_phys_memory(struct target *target, uint32_t address,
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		uint32_t size, uint32_t count, uint8_t *buffer)
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{
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	LOG_ERROR("Not implemented: %s", __func__);
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	return ERROR_FAIL;
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}

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static int handle_target(void *priv);

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int target_init(struct command_context *cmd_ctx)
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{
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	struct target *target;
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	int retval;
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	for (target = all_targets; target; target = target->next) {
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		struct target_type *type = target->type;
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		target_reset_examined(target);
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		if (target->type->examine == NULL)
		{
			target->type->examine = default_examine;
		}
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		if ((retval = target->type->init_target(cmd_ctx, target)) != ERROR_OK)
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		{
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			LOG_ERROR("target '%s' init failed", target_name(target));
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			return retval;
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		}
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		/**
		 * @todo get rid of those *memory_imp() methods, now that all
		 * callers are using target_*_memory() accessors ... and make
		 * sure the "physical" paths handle the same issues.
		 */

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		/* a non-invasive way(in terms of patches) to add some code that
		 * runs before the type->write/read_memory implementation
		 */
		target->type->write_memory_imp = target->type->write_memory;
		target->type->write_memory = target_write_memory_imp;
		target->type->read_memory_imp = target->type->read_memory;
		target->type->read_memory = target_read_memory_imp;
		target->type->soft_reset_halt_imp = target->type->soft_reset_halt;
		target->type->soft_reset_halt = target_soft_reset_halt_imp;
		target->type->run_algorithm_imp = target->type->run_algorithm;
		target->type->run_algorithm = target_run_algorithm_imp;

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		/* Sanity-check MMU support ... stub in what we must, to help
		 * implement it in stages, but warn if we need to do so.
		 */
		if (type->mmu) {
			if (type->write_phys_memory == NULL) {
				LOG_ERROR("type '%s' is missing %s",
						type->name,
						"write_phys_memory");
				type->write_phys_memory = err_write_phys_memory;
			}
			if (type->read_phys_memory == NULL) {
				LOG_ERROR("type '%s' is missing %s",
						type->name,
						"read_phys_memory");
				type->read_phys_memory = err_read_phys_memory;
			}
			if (type->virt2phys == NULL) {
				LOG_ERROR("type '%s' is missing %s",
						type->name,
						"virt2phys");
				type->virt2phys = identity_virt2phys;
			}

		/* Make sure no-MMU targets all behave the same:  make no
		 * distinction between physical and virtual addresses, and
		 * ensure that virt2phys() is always an identity mapping.
		 */
		} else {
			if (type->write_phys_memory
					|| type->read_phys_memory
					|| type->virt2phys)
				LOG_WARNING("type '%s' has broken MMU hooks",
						type->name);

			type->mmu = no_mmu;
			type->write_phys_memory = type->write_memory;
			type->read_phys_memory = type->read_memory;
			type->virt2phys = identity_virt2phys;
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		}
	}
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	if (all_targets)
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	{
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		if ((retval = target_register_user_commands(cmd_ctx)) != ERROR_OK)
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			return retval;
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		if ((retval = target_register_timer_callback(&handle_target, 100, 1, cmd_ctx->interp)) != ERROR_OK)
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			return retval;
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	}
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	return ERROR_OK;
}

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int target_register_event_callback(int (*callback)(struct target *target, enum target_event event, void *priv), void *priv)
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{
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	struct target_event_callback **callbacks_p = &target_event_callbacks;
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	if (callback == NULL)
	{
		return ERROR_INVALID_ARGUMENTS;
	}
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	if (*callbacks_p)
	{
		while ((*callbacks_p)->next)
			callbacks_p = &((*callbacks_p)->next);
		callbacks_p = &((*callbacks_p)->next);
	}
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	(*callbacks_p) = malloc(sizeof(struct target_event_callback));
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	(*callbacks_p)->callback = callback;
	(*callbacks_p)->priv = priv;
	(*callbacks_p)->next = NULL;
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	return ERROR_OK;
}

int target_register_timer_callback(int (*callback)(void *priv), int time_ms, int periodic, void *priv)
{
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	struct target_timer_callback **callbacks_p = &target_timer_callbacks;
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	struct timeval now;
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	if (callback == NULL)
	{
		return ERROR_INVALID_ARGUMENTS;
	}
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	if (*callbacks_p)
	{
		while ((*callbacks_p)->next)
			callbacks_p = &((*callbacks_p)->next);
		callbacks_p = &((*callbacks_p)->next);
	}
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	(*callbacks_p) = malloc(sizeof(struct target_timer_callback));
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	(*callbacks_p)->callback = callback;
	(*callbacks_p)->periodic = periodic;
	(*callbacks_p)->time_ms = time_ms;
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	gettimeofday(&now, NULL);
	(*callbacks_p)->when.tv_usec = now.tv_usec + (time_ms % 1000) * 1000;
	time_ms -= (time_ms % 1000);
	(*callbacks_p)->when.tv_sec = now.tv_sec + (time_ms / 1000);
	if ((*callbacks_p)->when.tv_usec > 1000000)
	{
		(*callbacks_p)->when.tv_usec = (*callbacks_p)->when.tv_usec - 1000000;
		(*callbacks_p)->when.tv_sec += 1;
	}
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	(*callbacks_p)->priv = priv;
	(*callbacks_p)->next = NULL;
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	return ERROR_OK;
}

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int target_unregister_event_callback(int (*callback)(struct target *target, enum target_event event, void *priv), void *priv)
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{
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	struct target_event_callback **p = &target_event_callbacks;
	struct target_event_callback *c = target_event_callbacks;
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	if (callback == NULL)
	{
		return ERROR_INVALID_ARGUMENTS;
	}
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	while (c)
	{
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		struct target_event_callback *next = c->next;
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		if ((c->callback == callback) && (c->priv == priv))
		{
			*p = next;
			free(c);
			return ERROR_OK;
		}
		else
			p = &(c->next);
		c = next;
	}
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	return ERROR_OK;
}

int target_unregister_timer_callback(int (*callback)(void *priv), void *priv)
{
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	struct target_timer_callback **p = &target_timer_callbacks;
	struct target_timer_callback *c = target_timer_callbacks;
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	if (callback == NULL)
	{
		return ERROR_INVALID_ARGUMENTS;
	}
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	while (c)
	{
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		struct target_timer_callback *next = c->next;
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		if ((c->callback == callback) && (c->priv == priv))
		{
			*p = next;
			free(c);
			return ERROR_OK;
		}
		else
			p = &(c->next);
		c = next;
	}
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	return ERROR_OK;
}

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int target_call_event_callbacks(struct target *target, enum target_event event)
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{
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	struct target_event_callback *callback = target_event_callbacks;
	struct target_event_callback *next_callback;
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	if (event == TARGET_EVENT_HALTED)
	{
		/* execute early halted first */
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		target_call_event_callbacks(target, TARGET_EVENT_GDB_HALT);
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	}

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	LOG_DEBUG("target event %i (%s)",
			  event,
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			  Jim_Nvp_value2name_simple(nvp_target_event, event)->name);
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	target_handle_event(target, event);
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	while (callback)
	{
		next_callback = callback->next;
		callback->callback(target, event, callback->priv);
		callback = next_callback;
	}
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	return ERROR_OK;
}

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static int target_timer_callback_periodic_restart(
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		struct target_timer_callback *cb, struct timeval *now)
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{
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	int time_ms = cb->time_ms;
	cb->when.tv_usec = now->tv_usec + (time_ms % 1000) * 1000;
	time_ms -= (time_ms % 1000);
	cb->when.tv_sec = now->tv_sec + time_ms / 1000;
	if (cb->when.tv_usec > 1000000)
	{
		cb->when.tv_usec = cb->when.tv_usec - 1000000;
		cb->when.tv_sec += 1;
	}
	return ERROR_OK;
}

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static int target_call_timer_callback(struct target_timer_callback *cb,
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		struct timeval *now)
{
	cb->callback(cb->priv);
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	if (cb->periodic)
		return target_timer_callback_periodic_restart(cb, now);

	return target_unregister_timer_callback(cb->callback, cb->priv);
}

static int target_call_timer_callbacks_check_time(int checktime)
{
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	keep_alive();

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	struct timeval now;
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	gettimeofday(&now, NULL);
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	struct target_timer_callback *callback = target_timer_callbacks;
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	while (callback)
	{
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		// cleaning up may unregister and free this callback
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		struct target_timer_callback *next_callback = callback->next;
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		bool call_it = callback->callback &&
			((!checktime && callback->periodic) ||
			  now.tv_sec > callback->when.tv_sec ||
			 (now.tv_sec == callback->when.tv_sec &&
			  now.tv_usec >= callback->when.tv_usec));
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		if (call_it)
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		{
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			int retval = target_call_timer_callback(callback, &now);
			if (retval != ERROR_OK)
				return retval;
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		}
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		callback = next_callback;
	}
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	return ERROR_OK;
}

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int target_call_timer_callbacks(void)
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{
	return target_call_timer_callbacks_check_time(1);
}

/* invoke periodic callbacks immediately */
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int target_call_timer_callbacks_now(void)
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{
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	return target_call_timer_callbacks_check_time(0);
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}

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int target_alloc_working_area(struct target *target, uint