target.c 56.6 KB
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/***************************************************************************
 *   Copyright (C) 2005 by Dominic Rath                                    *
 *   Dominic.Rath@gmx.de                                                   *
 *                                                                         *
 *   This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify  *
 *   it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by  *
 *   the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or     *
 *   (at your option) any later version.                                   *
 *                                                                         *
 *   This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,       *
 *   but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of        *
 *   MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the         *
 *   GNU General Public License for more details.                          *
 *                                                                         *
 *   You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License     *
 *   along with this program; if not, write to the                         *
 *   Free Software Foundation, Inc.,                                       *
 *   59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA.             *
 ***************************************************************************/
#ifdef HAVE_CONFIG_H
#include "config.h"
#endif

#include "replacements.h"
#include "target.h"
#include "target_request.h"

#include "log.h"
#include "configuration.h"
#include "binarybuffer.h"
#include "jtag.h"

#include <string.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <inttypes.h>

#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <errno.h>

#include <sys/time.h>
#include <time.h>

#include <time_support.h>

#include <fileio.h>
#include <image.h>

int cli_target_callback_event_handler(struct target_s *target, enum target_event event, void *priv);


int handle_target_command(struct command_context_s *cmd_ctx, char *cmd, char **args, int argc);
int handle_daemon_startup_command(struct command_context_s *cmd_ctx, char *cmd, char **args, int argc);
int handle_targets_command(struct command_context_s *cmd_ctx, char *cmd, char **args, int argc);

int handle_target_script_command(struct command_context_s *cmd_ctx, char *cmd, char **args, int argc);
int handle_run_and_halt_time_command(struct command_context_s *cmd_ctx, char *cmd, char **args, int argc);
int handle_working_area_command(struct command_context_s *cmd_ctx, char *cmd, char **args, int argc);

int handle_reg_command(struct command_context_s *cmd_ctx, char *cmd, char **args, int argc);
int handle_poll_command(struct command_context_s *cmd_ctx, char *cmd, char **args, int argc);
int handle_halt_command(struct command_context_s *cmd_ctx, char *cmd, char **args, int argc);
int handle_wait_halt_command(struct command_context_s *cmd_ctx, char *cmd, char **args, int argc);
int handle_reset_command(struct command_context_s *cmd_ctx, char *cmd, char **args, int argc);
int handle_soft_reset_halt_command(struct command_context_s *cmd_ctx, char *cmd, char **args, int argc);
int handle_resume_command(struct command_context_s *cmd_ctx, char *cmd, char **args, int argc);
int handle_step_command(struct command_context_s *cmd_ctx, char *cmd, char **args, int argc);
int handle_md_command(struct command_context_s *cmd_ctx, char *cmd, char **args, int argc);
int handle_mw_command(struct command_context_s *cmd_ctx, char *cmd, char **args, int argc);
int handle_load_image_command(struct command_context_s *cmd_ctx, char *cmd, char **args, int argc);
int handle_dump_image_command(struct command_context_s *cmd_ctx, char *cmd, char **args, int argc);
int handle_verify_image_command(struct command_context_s *cmd_ctx, char *cmd, char **args, int argc);
int handle_bp_command(struct command_context_s *cmd_ctx, char *cmd, char **args, int argc);
int handle_rbp_command(struct command_context_s *cmd_ctx, char *cmd, char **args, int argc);
int handle_wp_command(struct command_context_s *cmd_ctx, char *cmd, char **args, int argc);
int handle_rwp_command(struct command_context_s *cmd_ctx, char *cmd, char **args, int argc);
int handle_virt2phys_command(command_context_t *cmd_ctx, char *cmd, char **args, int argc);

/* targets
 */
extern target_type_t arm7tdmi_target;
extern target_type_t arm720t_target;
extern target_type_t arm9tdmi_target;
extern target_type_t arm920t_target;
extern target_type_t arm966e_target;
extern target_type_t arm926ejs_target;
extern target_type_t feroceon_target;
extern target_type_t xscale_target;
extern target_type_t cortexm3_target;
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extern target_type_t arm11_target;
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target_type_t *target_types[] =
{
	&arm7tdmi_target,
	&arm9tdmi_target,
	&arm920t_target,
	&arm720t_target,
	&arm966e_target,
	&arm926ejs_target,
	&feroceon_target,
	&xscale_target,
	&cortexm3_target,
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	&arm11_target,
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	NULL,
};

target_t *targets = NULL;
target_event_callback_t *target_event_callbacks = NULL;
target_timer_callback_t *target_timer_callbacks = NULL;

char *target_state_strings[] =
{
	"unknown",
	"running",
	"halted",
	"reset",
	"debug_running",
};

char *target_debug_reason_strings[] =
{
	"debug request", "breakpoint", "watchpoint",
	"watchpoint and breakpoint", "single step",
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	"target not halted", "undefined"
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};

char *target_endianess_strings[] =
{
	"big endian",
	"little endian",
};

enum daemon_startup_mode startup_mode = DAEMON_ATTACH;

static int target_continous_poll = 1;

/* read a u32 from a buffer in target memory endianness */
u32 target_buffer_get_u32(target_t *target, u8 *buffer)
{
	if (target->endianness == TARGET_LITTLE_ENDIAN)
		return le_to_h_u32(buffer);
	else
		return be_to_h_u32(buffer);
}

/* read a u16 from a buffer in target memory endianness */
u16 target_buffer_get_u16(target_t *target, u8 *buffer)
{
	if (target->endianness == TARGET_LITTLE_ENDIAN)
		return le_to_h_u16(buffer);
	else
		return be_to_h_u16(buffer);
}

/* write a u32 to a buffer in target memory endianness */
void target_buffer_set_u32(target_t *target, u8 *buffer, u32 value)
{
	if (target->endianness == TARGET_LITTLE_ENDIAN)
		h_u32_to_le(buffer, value);
	else
		h_u32_to_be(buffer, value);
}

/* write a u16 to a buffer in target memory endianness */
void target_buffer_set_u16(target_t *target, u8 *buffer, u16 value)
{
	if (target->endianness == TARGET_LITTLE_ENDIAN)
		h_u16_to_le(buffer, value);
	else
		h_u16_to_be(buffer, value);
}

/* returns a pointer to the n-th configured target */
target_t* get_target_by_num(int num)
{
	target_t *target = targets;
	int i = 0;

	while (target)
	{
		if (num == i)
			return target;
		target = target->next;
		i++;
	}

	return NULL;
}

int get_num_by_target(target_t *query_target)
{
	target_t *target = targets;
	int i = 0;	
	
	while (target)
	{
		if (target == query_target)
			return i;
		target = target->next;
		i++;
	}
	
	return -1;
}

target_t* get_current_target(command_context_t *cmd_ctx)
{
	target_t *target = get_target_by_num(cmd_ctx->current_target);
	
	if (target == NULL)
	{
		ERROR("BUG: current_target out of bounds");
		exit(-1);
	}
	
	return target;
}

/* Process target initialization, when target entered debug out of reset
 * the handler is unregistered at the end of this function, so it's only called once
 */
int target_init_handler(struct target_s *target, enum target_event event, void *priv)
{
	FILE *script;
	struct command_context_s *cmd_ctx = priv;
	
	if ((event == TARGET_EVENT_HALTED) && (target->reset_script))
	{
		target_unregister_event_callback(target_init_handler, priv);

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		script = open_file_from_path(target->reset_script, "r");
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		if (!script)
		{
			ERROR("couldn't open script file %s", target->reset_script);
				return ERROR_OK;
		}

		INFO("executing reset script '%s'", target->reset_script);
		command_run_file(cmd_ctx, script, COMMAND_EXEC);
		fclose(script);

		jtag_execute_queue();
	}
	
	return ERROR_OK;
}

int target_run_and_halt_handler(void *priv)
{
	target_t *target = priv;
	
	target->type->halt(target);
	
	return ERROR_OK;
}

int target_process_reset(struct command_context_s *cmd_ctx)
{
	int retval = ERROR_OK;
	target_t *target;
	struct timeval timeout, now;
	
	/* prepare reset_halt where necessary */
	target = targets;
	while (target)
	{
		if (jtag_reset_config & RESET_SRST_PULLS_TRST)
		{
			switch (target->reset_mode)
			{
				case RESET_HALT:
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					command_print(cmd_ctx, "nSRST pulls nTRST, falling back to \"reset run_and_halt\"");
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					target->reset_mode = RESET_RUN_AND_HALT;
					break;
				case RESET_INIT:
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					command_print(cmd_ctx, "nSRST pulls nTRST, falling back to \"reset run_and_init\"");
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					target->reset_mode = RESET_RUN_AND_INIT;
					break;
				default:
					break;
			} 
		}
		switch (target->reset_mode)
		{
			case RESET_HALT:
			case RESET_INIT:
				target->type->prepare_reset_halt(target);
				break;
			default:
				break;
		}
		target = target->next;
	}
	
	target = targets;
	while (target)
	{
		target->type->assert_reset(target);
		target = target->next;
	}
	jtag_execute_queue();
	
	/* request target halt if necessary, and schedule further action */
	target = targets;
	while (target)
	{
		switch (target->reset_mode)
		{
			case RESET_RUN:
				/* nothing to do if target just wants to be run */
				break;
			case RESET_RUN_AND_HALT:
				/* schedule halt */
				target_register_timer_callback(target_run_and_halt_handler, target->run_and_halt_time, 0, target);
				break;
			case RESET_RUN_AND_INIT:
				/* schedule halt */
				target_register_timer_callback(target_run_and_halt_handler, target->run_and_halt_time, 0, target);
				target_register_event_callback(target_init_handler, cmd_ctx);
				break;
			case RESET_HALT:
				target->type->halt(target);
				break;
			case RESET_INIT:
				target->type->halt(target);
				target_register_event_callback(target_init_handler, cmd_ctx);
				break;
			default:
				ERROR("BUG: unknown target->reset_mode");
		}
		target = target->next;
	}
	
	target = targets;
	while (target)
	{
		target->type->deassert_reset(target);
		target = target->next;
	}
	jtag_execute_queue();

	/* Wait for reset to complete, maximum 5 seconds. */	
	gettimeofday(&timeout, NULL);
	timeval_add_time(&timeout, 5, 0);
	for(;;)
	{
		gettimeofday(&now, NULL);
		
		target_call_timer_callbacks();
		
		target = targets;
		while (target)
		{
			target->type->poll(target);
			if ((target->reset_mode == RESET_RUN_AND_INIT) || (target->reset_mode == RESET_RUN_AND_HALT))
			{
				if (target->state != TARGET_HALTED)
				{
					if ((now.tv_sec > timeout.tv_sec) || ((now.tv_sec == timeout.tv_sec) && (now.tv_usec >= timeout.tv_usec)))
					{
						command_print(cmd_ctx, "Timed out waiting for reset");
						goto done;
					}
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					/* this will send alive messages on e.g. GDB remote protocol.
					 * GDB warns me that I'm sending a zero length formatting message,
					 * which is strange, but in fact what is intended here. */
					usleep(500*1000); 
					USER_N(""); 
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					goto again;
				}
			}
			target = target->next;
		}
		/* All targets we're waiting for are halted */
		break;
		
		again:;
	}
	done:
	
	
	/* We want any events to be processed before the prompt */
	target_call_timer_callbacks();
	
	return retval;
}

static int default_virt2phys(struct target_s *target, u32 virtual, u32 *physical)
{
	*physical = virtual;
	return ERROR_OK;
}

static int default_mmu(struct target_s *target, int *enabled)
{
	*enabled = 0;
	return ERROR_OK;
}

int target_init(struct command_context_s *cmd_ctx)
{
	target_t *target = targets;
	
	while (target)
	{
		if (target->type->init_target(cmd_ctx, target) != ERROR_OK)
		{
			ERROR("target '%s' init failed", target->type->name);
			exit(-1);
		}
		
		/* Set up default functions if none are provided by target */
		if (target->type->virt2phys == NULL)
		{
			target->type->virt2phys = default_virt2phys;
		}
		if (target->type->mmu == NULL)
		{
			target->type->mmu = default_mmu;
		}
		target = target->next;
	}
	
	if (targets)
	{
		target_register_user_commands(cmd_ctx);
		target_register_timer_callback(handle_target, 100, 1, NULL);
	}
		
	return ERROR_OK;
}

int target_init_reset(struct command_context_s *cmd_ctx)
{
	if (startup_mode == DAEMON_RESET)
		target_process_reset(cmd_ctx);
	
	return ERROR_OK;
}

int target_register_event_callback(int (*callback)(struct target_s *target, enum target_event event, void *priv), void *priv)
{
	target_event_callback_t **callbacks_p = &target_event_callbacks;
	
	if (callback == NULL)
	{
		return ERROR_INVALID_ARGUMENTS;
	}
	
	if (*callbacks_p)
	{
		while ((*callbacks_p)->next)
			callbacks_p = &((*callbacks_p)->next);
		callbacks_p = &((*callbacks_p)->next);
	}
	
	(*callbacks_p) = malloc(sizeof(target_event_callback_t));
	(*callbacks_p)->callback = callback;
	(*callbacks_p)->priv = priv;
	(*callbacks_p)->next = NULL;
	
	return ERROR_OK;
}

int target_register_timer_callback(int (*callback)(void *priv), int time_ms, int periodic, void *priv)
{
	target_timer_callback_t **callbacks_p = &target_timer_callbacks;
	struct timeval now;
	
	if (callback == NULL)
	{
		return ERROR_INVALID_ARGUMENTS;
	}
	
	if (*callbacks_p)
	{
		while ((*callbacks_p)->next)
			callbacks_p = &((*callbacks_p)->next);
		callbacks_p = &((*callbacks_p)->next);
	}
	
	(*callbacks_p) = malloc(sizeof(target_timer_callback_t));
	(*callbacks_p)->callback = callback;
	(*callbacks_p)->periodic = periodic;
	(*callbacks_p)->time_ms = time_ms;
	
	gettimeofday(&now, NULL);
	(*callbacks_p)->when.tv_usec = now.tv_usec + (time_ms % 1000) * 1000;
	time_ms -= (time_ms % 1000);
	(*callbacks_p)->when.tv_sec = now.tv_sec + (time_ms / 1000);
	if ((*callbacks_p)->when.tv_usec > 1000000)
	{
		(*callbacks_p)->when.tv_usec = (*callbacks_p)->when.tv_usec - 1000000;
		(*callbacks_p)->when.tv_sec += 1;
	}
	
	(*callbacks_p)->priv = priv;
	(*callbacks_p)->next = NULL;
	
	return ERROR_OK;
}

int target_unregister_event_callback(int (*callback)(struct target_s *target, enum target_event event, void *priv), void *priv)
{
	target_event_callback_t **p = &target_event_callbacks;
	target_event_callback_t *c = target_event_callbacks;
	
	if (callback == NULL)
	{
		return ERROR_INVALID_ARGUMENTS;
	}
		
	while (c)
	{
		target_event_callback_t *next = c->next;
		if ((c->callback == callback) && (c->priv == priv))
		{
			*p = next;
			free(c);
			return ERROR_OK;
		}
		else
			p = &(c->next);
		c = next;
	}
	
	return ERROR_OK;
}

int target_unregister_timer_callback(int (*callback)(void *priv), void *priv)
{
	target_timer_callback_t **p = &target_timer_callbacks;
	target_timer_callback_t *c = target_timer_callbacks;
	
	if (callback == NULL)
	{
		return ERROR_INVALID_ARGUMENTS;
	}
		
	while (c)
	{
		target_timer_callback_t *next = c->next;
		if ((c->callback == callback) && (c->priv == priv))
		{
			*p = next;
			free(c);
			return ERROR_OK;
		}
		else
			p = &(c->next);
		c = next;
	}
	
	return ERROR_OK;
}

int target_call_event_callbacks(target_t *target, enum target_event event)
{
	target_event_callback_t *callback = target_event_callbacks;
	target_event_callback_t *next_callback;
	
	DEBUG("target event %i", event);
	
	while (callback)
	{
		next_callback = callback->next;
		callback->callback(target, event, callback->priv);
		callback = next_callback;
	}
	
	return ERROR_OK;
}

int target_call_timer_callbacks()
{
	target_timer_callback_t *callback = target_timer_callbacks;
	target_timer_callback_t *next_callback;
	struct timeval now;

	gettimeofday(&now, NULL);
	
	while (callback)
	{
		next_callback = callback->next;
		
		if (((now.tv_sec >= callback->when.tv_sec) && (now.tv_usec >= callback->when.tv_usec))
			|| (now.tv_sec > callback->when.tv_sec))
		{
			callback->callback(callback->priv);
			if (callback->periodic)
			{
				int time_ms = callback->time_ms;
				callback->when.tv_usec = now.tv_usec + (time_ms % 1000) * 1000;
				time_ms -= (time_ms % 1000);
				callback->when.tv_sec = now.tv_sec + time_ms / 1000;
				if (callback->when.tv_usec > 1000000)
				{
					callback->when.tv_usec = callback->when.tv_usec - 1000000;
					callback->when.tv_sec += 1;
				}
			}
			else
				target_unregister_timer_callback(callback->callback, callback->priv);
		}
			
		callback = next_callback;
	}
	
	return ERROR_OK;
}

int target_alloc_working_area(struct target_s *target, u32 size, working_area_t **area)
{
	working_area_t *c = target->working_areas;
	working_area_t *new_wa = NULL;
	
	/* Reevaluate working area address based on MMU state*/
	if (target->working_areas == NULL)
	{
		int retval;
		int enabled;
		retval = target->type->mmu(target, &enabled);
		if (retval != ERROR_OK)
		{
			return retval;
		}
		if (enabled)
		{
			target->working_area = target->working_area_virt;
		}
		else
		{
			target->working_area = target->working_area_phys;
		}
	}
	
	/* only allocate multiples of 4 byte */
	if (size % 4)
	{
		ERROR("BUG: code tried to allocate unaligned number of bytes, padding");
		size = CEIL(size, 4);
	}
	
	/* see if there's already a matching working area */
	while (c)
	{
		if ((c->free) && (c->size == size))
		{
			new_wa = c;
			break;
		}
		c = c->next;
	}
	
	/* if not, allocate a new one */
	if (!new_wa)
	{
		working_area_t **p = &target->working_areas;
		u32 first_free = target->working_area;
		u32 free_size = target->working_area_size;
		
		DEBUG("allocating new working area");
		
		c = target->working_areas;
		while (c)
		{
			first_free += c->size;
			free_size -= c->size;
			p = &c->next;
			c = c->next;
		}
		
		if (free_size < size)
		{
			WARNING("not enough working area available(requested %d, free %d)", size, free_size);
			return ERROR_TARGET_RESOURCE_NOT_AVAILABLE;
		}
		
		new_wa = malloc(sizeof(working_area_t));
		new_wa->next = NULL;
		new_wa->size = size;
		new_wa->address = first_free;
		
		if (target->backup_working_area)
		{
			new_wa->backup = malloc(new_wa->size);
			target->type->read_memory(target, new_wa->address, 4, new_wa->size / 4, new_wa->backup);
		}
		else
		{
			new_wa->backup = NULL;
		}
		
		/* put new entry in list */
		*p = new_wa;
	}
	
	/* mark as used, and return the new (reused) area */
	new_wa->free = 0;
	*area = new_wa;
	
	/* user pointer */
	new_wa->user = area;
	
	return ERROR_OK;
}

int target_free_working_area(struct target_s *target, working_area_t *area)
{
	if (area->free)
		return ERROR_OK;
	
	if (target->backup_working_area)
		target->type->write_memory(target, area->address, 4, area->size / 4, area->backup);
	
	area->free = 1;
	
	/* mark user pointer invalid */
	*area->user = NULL;
	area->user = NULL;
	
	return ERROR_OK;
}

int target_free_all_working_areas(struct target_s *target)
{
	working_area_t *c = target->working_areas;

	while (c)
	{
		working_area_t *next = c->next;
		target_free_working_area(target, c);
		
		if (c->backup)
			free(c->backup);
		
		free(c);
		
		c = next;
	}
	
	target->working_areas = NULL;
	
	return ERROR_OK;
}

int target_register_commands(struct command_context_s *cmd_ctx)
{
	register_command(cmd_ctx, NULL, "target", handle_target_command, COMMAND_CONFIG, NULL);
	register_command(cmd_ctx, NULL, "targets", handle_targets_command, COMMAND_EXEC, NULL);
	register_command(cmd_ctx, NULL, "daemon_startup", handle_daemon_startup_command, COMMAND_CONFIG, NULL);
	register_command(cmd_ctx, NULL, "target_script", handle_target_script_command, COMMAND_CONFIG, NULL);
	register_command(cmd_ctx, NULL, "run_and_halt_time", handle_run_and_halt_time_command, COMMAND_CONFIG, NULL);
	register_command(cmd_ctx, NULL, "working_area", handle_working_area_command, COMMAND_ANY, "working_area <target#> <address> <size> <'backup'|'nobackup'> [virtual address]");
	register_command(cmd_ctx, NULL, "virt2phys", handle_virt2phys_command, COMMAND_ANY, "virt2phys <virtual address>");

	return ERROR_OK;
}

int target_arch_state(struct target_s *target)
{
	int retval;
	if (target==NULL)
	{
		USER("No target has been configured");
		return ERROR_OK;
	}
	
	USER("target state: %s", target_state_strings[target->state]);
	
	if (target->state!=TARGET_HALTED)
		return ERROR_OK;
	
	retval=target->type->arch_state(target);
	return retval;
}

/* Single aligned words are guaranteed to use 16 or 32 bit access 
 * mode respectively, otherwise data is handled as quickly as 
 * possible
 */
int target_write_buffer(struct target_s *target, u32 address, u32 size, u8 *buffer)
{
	int retval;
	
	DEBUG("writing buffer of %i byte at 0x%8.8x", size, address);
	
	if (((address % 2) == 0) && (size == 2))
	{
		return target->type->write_memory(target, address, 2, 1, buffer);
	}
	
	/* handle unaligned head bytes */
	if (address % 4)
	{
		int unaligned = 4 - (address % 4);
		
		if (unaligned > size)
			unaligned = size;

		if ((retval = target->type->write_memory(target, address, 1, unaligned, buffer)) != ERROR_OK)
			return retval;
		
		buffer += unaligned;
		address += unaligned;
		size -= unaligned;
	}
		
	/* handle aligned words */
	if (size >= 4)
	{
		int aligned = size - (size % 4);
	
		/* use bulk writes above a certain limit. This may have to be changed */
		if (aligned > 128)
		{
			if ((retval = target->type->bulk_write_memory(target, address, aligned / 4, buffer)) != ERROR_OK)
				return retval;
		}
		else
		{
			if ((retval = target->type->write_memory(target, address, 4, aligned / 4, buffer)) != ERROR_OK)
				return retval;
		}
		
		buffer += aligned;
		address += aligned;
		size -= aligned;
	}
	
	/* handle tail writes of less than 4 bytes */
	if (size > 0)
	{
		if ((retval = target->type->write_memory(target, address, 1, size, buffer)) != ERROR_OK)
			return retval;
	}
	
	return ERROR_OK;
}


/* Single aligned words are guaranteed to use 16 or 32 bit access 
 * mode respectively, otherwise data is handled as quickly as 
 * possible
 */
int target_read_buffer(struct target_s *target, u32 address, u32 size, u8 *buffer)
{
	int retval;
	
	DEBUG("reading buffer of %i byte at 0x%8.8x", size, address);
	
	if (((address % 2) == 0) && (size == 2))
	{
		return target->type->read_memory(target, address, 2, 1, buffer);
	}
	
	/* handle unaligned head bytes */
	if (address % 4)
	{
		int unaligned = 4 - (address % 4);
		
		if (unaligned > size)
			unaligned = size;

		if ((retval = target->type->read_memory(target, address, 1, unaligned, buffer)) != ERROR_OK)
			return retval;
		
		buffer += unaligned;
		address += unaligned;
		size -= unaligned;
	}
		
	/* handle aligned words */
	if (size >= 4)
	{
		int aligned = size - (size % 4);
	
		if ((retval = target->type->read_memory(target, address, 4, aligned / 4, buffer)) != ERROR_OK)
			return retval;
		
		buffer += aligned;
		address += aligned;
		size -= aligned;
	}
	
	/* handle tail writes of less than 4 bytes */
	if (size > 0)
	{
		if ((retval = target->type->read_memory(target, address, 1, size, buffer)) != ERROR_OK)
			return retval;
	}
	
	return ERROR_OK;
}

int target_checksum_memory(struct target_s *target, u32 address, u32 size, u32* crc)
{
	u8 *buffer;
	int retval;
	int i;
	u32 checksum = 0;
	
	if ((retval = target->type->checksum_memory(target, address,
		size, &checksum)) == ERROR_TARGET_RESOURCE_NOT_AVAILABLE)
	{
		buffer = malloc(size);
		if (buffer == NULL)
		{
			ERROR("error allocating buffer for section (%d bytes)", size);
			return ERROR_INVALID_ARGUMENTS;
		}
		retval = target_read_buffer(target, address, size, buffer);
		if (retval != ERROR_OK)
		{
			free(buffer);
			return retval;
		}

		/* convert to target endianess */
		for (i = 0; i < (size/sizeof(u32)); i++)
		{
			u32 target_data;
			target_data = target_buffer_get_u32(target, &buffer[i*sizeof(u32)]);
			target_buffer_set_u32(target, &buffer[i*sizeof(u32)], target_data);
		}

		retval = image_calculate_checksum( buffer, size, &checksum );
		free(buffer);
	}
	
	*crc = checksum;
	
	return retval;
}

int target_read_u32(struct target_s *target, u32 address, u32 *value)
{
	u8 value_buf[4];

	int retval = target->type->read_memory(target, address, 4, 1, value_buf);
	
	if (retval == ERROR_OK)
	{
		*value = target_buffer_get_u32(target, value_buf);
		DEBUG("address: 0x%8.8x, value: 0x%8.8x", address, *value);
	}
	else
	{
		*value = 0x0;
		DEBUG("address: 0x%8.8x failed", address);
	}
	
	return retval;
}

int target_read_u16(struct target_s *target, u32 address, u16 *value)
{
	u8 value_buf[2];
	
	int retval = target->type->read_memory(target, address, 2, 1, value_buf);
	
	if (retval == ERROR_OK)
	{
		*value = target_buffer_get_u16(target, value_buf);
		DEBUG("address: 0x%8.8x, value: 0x%4.4x", address, *value);
	}
	else
	{
		*value = 0x0;
		DEBUG("address: 0x%8.8x failed", address);
	}
	
	return retval;
}

int target_read_u8(struct target_s *target, u32 address, u8 *value)
{
	int retval = target->type->read_memory(target, address, 1, 1, value);

	if (retval == ERROR_OK)
	{
		DEBUG("address: 0x%8.8x, value: 0x%2.2x", address, *value);
	}
	else
	{
		*value = 0x0;
		DEBUG("address: 0x%8.8x failed", address);
	}
	
	return retval;
}

int target_write_u32(struct target_s *target, u32 address, u32 value)
{
	int retval;
	u8 value_buf[4];

	DEBUG("address: 0x%8.8x, value: 0x%8.8x", address, value);

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